The city lies about 170 kilometres (110 mi) north of Munich. [4] In 1852, there were 53,638 inhabitants: 46,441 Protestants and 6,616 Catholics. Nuremberg, October 1946–April 1949. Created more than 70 years ago following the notorious World War II experiments, this written document established 10 ethical principles for protecting human subjects. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. The Nuremberg Code (1947) Posted on May 17, 2019 by Leslie Gelling in Ethics, History of research ethics, informed consent, Nuremberg Code, Research, Research ethics. The official colours of the association are red and white, but the traditional colours are red and black. [22], Like many European cities, Nuremberg offers a pedestrian-only zone covering a large portion of the old town, which is a main destination for shopping and specialty retail,[24] including year-round Christmas stores where tourists and locals alike can purchase Christmas ornaments, gifts, decorations, and additions to their toy Christmas villages. The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. In that year the MRC also published its guidelines relating to paediatric experimentation and noted that they should be subject to no greater than the minimum potential harm, though this has later been extended by both the RCPCH in the UK and National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research in the US, to include research that involve more minimum risk under very specific provisions. 00:08, 24 May 2006 (UTC), the citation needed is probably the following book available german language The rallies were held in 1927, 1929 and annually from 1933 through 1938. The Nuremberg Code is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation set as a result of the subsequent Nuremberg trials at the end of WWII. I think that would be helpful for organization purposes. Since 2008, Nuremberg has had the first U-Bahn in Germany (U2/U21 and U3) that works without a driver. The airport (Flughafen) is the terminus of Nuremberg U-Bahn Line 2; it is the only airport in Germany served by a U-Bahn subway system. There are also six nearby amusement parks. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O, 1949–1953. Only one of the districts in the 1797-1801 sample was early industrial; the economic structure of the region around Nuremberg was dominated by metal and glass manufacturing, reflected by a share of nearly 50% handicrafts and workers. It is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area (colloquially: "Franconian"; German: Fränkisch), Nuremberg was one of the host cities of the 2006 FIFA World Cup. It is the second-largest opera orchestra in Bavaria. It is mainly for protection of subjects’ human right (Shuster, 1997), such as compulsory of informed consent and the equal authority of subjects as the physician-researcher to end the experiment. The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna.[3]. The Nuremberg Code drafted at the end of the Doctor's trial in Nuremberg 1947 has been hailed as a landmark document in medical and research ethics. The Nuremberg International Toy Fair, held at the city's exhibition centre is the largest of its kind in the world.[21]. Nuremberg Principle IV, and its reference to an individual's responsibility, was also at issue in Canada in the case of Hinzman v. Canada. FC Nürnberg, known locally as Der Club (English: "The Club"), was founded in 1900 and currently plays in the Bundesliga. Composed of prosperous artisans, the guilds of the Meistersingers flourished here. [11] The city was severely damaged in Allied strategic bombing from 1943 to 1945. 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