The functional, occlusal, and aesthetic parameters can be assessed before the completion of definitive prostheses [5]. Effect of different burs on dentin bond strengths of self-etching primer systems. At the ceramic/composite interface, the marginal integrity of PAC (Median: 0%; 25%-75% quartiles: 0–0.2%) was significantly better than the marginal sealing of EVC (5%; 0–10%) (PAC/EVC p≤ 0.05) and marginally better than the sealing of SYC (0%; 0–5%) (Table 3). The marginal fit of the CEREC crowns is very accurate due to the high precision of the scanning machines, so marginal integrity is great provided the crown is properly designed. Single pairwise comparisons between the resin-coating luting technique group (EVR, PAR, SYR) and RelyX Unicem (REX) at the ceramic/composite interface showed significantly better marginal sealing of SYR (0%; 0–0.6%) than REX (1%; 0–4%) (SYR/REX p≤ 0.05). A nonparametric statistical analysis was used to analyze the data, because of the lack of a normal distribution. The prepared teeth were assigned to three groups: 1) conventional luting technique (n=36), 2) resin-coating luting technique (n=36) or 3) recently introduced self-adhesive universal resin cement (n=12). Does an incremental filling technique reduce the polymerization shrinkage stresses? Note crown orientation, marginal adaptation, and resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement. [9] For the restoration of prepared specimens, machinable feldspathic ceramic blocks and fabrication of PCCs with the Cerec 3 system were chosen.11 No temporary restorations were applied in order to avoid possible additional influence of the temporary cement on the adhesive bond between the resin-coat or dentin and luting agent in this investigation.5, Within the conventional luting technique group, the resin luting materials Variolink II and Panavia F2.0 have been chosen for the evaluation, as they are very commonly applied in adhesive dentistry and their material properties are well documented in the literature.3,10 For Variolink II, a two-step and three-step adhesive system were used for resin-coating in order to study the influence of the adhesive system. Effect of resin-coating technique on dentin tensile bond strengths over 3 years. Marginal adaptation and fit of adhesive ceramic inlays. After the preparation of MOD-cavities the functional cusps were reduced for 1,5 mm. However, no comparative data are available on the quality of the marginal seal of these materials and techniques. The effect of multiple firings on the marginal integrity of pressable ceramic core crowns is unknown. Data from luting inlays may not be reliable for partial crowns due to the different sizes and geometry of the respective cavities/preparations. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the marginal adaptation of two different full ceramic restoration systems [Zirkouzahu and Cercon] and possible changes in marginal integrity following the multiple veneering process. Any cause of distortion, including veneering processes, in the marginal integrity is After thermocycling and mechanical loading (TC: 5000 cycles at 5°C/55°C; 30 seconds/cycle; ML:500000 cycles at 72.5 N, 1.6 Hz), microleakage was assessed by evaluating silver staining (%) on multiple tooth sections. The authors wish to express their thanks and appreciation to Prof Dr Loys J Nunez, Memphis, TN, USA, for his constructive criticism and advice regarding this manuscript. Within these three groups, the following materials were applied: 1) Excite/Variolink II (EVC), ED-Primer/Panavia-F2.0 (PAC), Syntac Classic/Variolink II (SYC); 2) Excite/Variolink II with Excite/Tetric Flow resin-coating (EVR), ED-Primer/Panavia-F2.0 with Clearfil SE-Bond/Protect-Liner F resin-coating (PAR), Excite/Variolink II with Syntac Classic/Tetric Flow resin-coating (SYR); 3) RelyX Unicem (REX). Note crown orientation, marginal adaptation, and resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement. Microleakage of four Class II resin composite insertion techniques at intra-oral temperature. The results of the current investigation are in accordance with the data reported in the literature for inlay restorations, where resin-coating has been shown to be a means to reduce marginal leakage at the dentin/composite interface.3–4,19 For the conventional luting technique, Feilzer and others have reported the development of high polymerization stress in thin bonded layers due to the unfavorable configuration factor (bonded to unbonded surface).20 The lining of the cavity with a flowable resin-composite layer following preparation allows for free shrinkage of the thin layer due to the favorable ratio of bonded to unbonded surfaces, thus producing a primary stable bond to the tooth structure. [Die Dual-Bonding-Technik: Eine modifizierte Methode zur Verbesserung der adhäsiven Befestigungstechnik]. However, this is dependent upon the materials used. The current study compared the marginal sealing of partial ceramic crowns luted either with or without the application of a resin-coating and compared the results with the marginal integrity of a recently introduced self-adhesive material. The most important factor in achieving successful marginal integrity is preparation design. Adapted, finished, and polished first primary molars crowns (buccal side) compared to crown forms as manufactured (lingual side). For the conventional luting technique (Group 1), microleakage was significantly higher at the dentin/composite interface, with medians ranging from 58% (PAC, SYC) to 67% (EVC), compared to the ceramic/composite interface, with medians ranging from 0% (PAC, SYC) to 5% (EVC). Marginal integrity of both preparation designs was found to be similar. After TCML, microleakage was determined at proximal locations for ceramic/composite-, resin-coating/composite-(where practical) and dentin/composite-interfaces separately by means of dye penetration (Figure 4). The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal integrity of interim crowns made by CAD/CAM compared with that of conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) crowns. With respect to the silver staining values at the dentin/composite interface, a significant improvement in marginal adaptation within the resin-coating group was generally observed when compared to the conventional luting group. However, it was not possible to completely eliminate marginal deterioration as indicated by silver staining. • However, in practical terms the difference in marginal quality is only slight, so that the use of pure titanium for single-tooth restorations is justified. In Groups 1 and 2, the evaluation of microleak-age at dentin showed better marginal integrity when the resin-coating technique was applied (EVR, PAR, SYR: 18–53%) than within the conventional luting technique group (EVC, PAC, SYC: 58–67%). At the dentin/composite interface, REX (15%; 11–29%) showed the best marginal sealing within pairwise comparisons. a) Preparation design of PCC. [1,2] Restorations with poor marginal integrity may contribute to the Single pairwise comparisons among EVC, PAC and SYC showed no significant differences between the microleakage values at the dentin/composite interface. Furthermore, the values of PAR (1%; 0–5%) were similar to REX (1%; 0–4%); those of EVR (5%; 0–8%) were marginally inferior to REX (1%; 0–4%). The maximum measurement per tooth, noted separately for each interface, was selected as the characteristic descriptive value, representative of the respective tooth. DISCREPANCIES OF MARGINAL FIT Complications caused by incomplete seating of crowns are: Creation of premature contacts Alteration of contact areas with adjacent teeth A reduction in crown retention by 19% to 32% Discrepancies of marginal fit of the crown. Schematic illustration of preparation design and resin-coating. This in vitro study evaluated the marginal integrity of partial ceramic crowns (PCCs) luted with or without a resin-coating and compared the results with the marginal sealing of a recently introduced self-adhesive universal resin cement. Three-year clinical performance of gold cast vs ceramic partial crowns. When silver staining is used, enhanced contrast may be achieved when compared to other dye penetration methods.14–15 The use of silver nitrate in combination with a photo developing solution as a chemical tracer is only distinct from the use of dyes in that the tracers rely on the reaction between both chemicals used.14,16 Silver stains resist disruption by the coolant when sectioning the tooth, although they are passively deposited.17–18 In general, the interpretation of silver staining results is subject to controversy. Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the resin-coating technique improves the marginal integrity at the dentin/composite interface compared to the conventional luting technique. Figure 4. PCC preparations were performed on 84 extracted human molars, with proximal margins placed 1 mm below the cemento-enamel junction. Bond strength of a new universal self-adhesive resin luting cement to dentin and enamel. A study by De Munck and others showed that marginal adaptation of RelyX Unicem was significantly lower at the enamel interface than at the dentin/composite interface. Elagra MI(1), Rayyan MR(1), Alhomaidhi MM(1), Alanaziy AA(2), Alnefaie MO(2). 4. The luting procedures are summarized in Table 1. Early bonding of resin cements to dentin—effect of bonding environment. Frederike Schenke, Dr med dent, University of Regensburg–Dental School, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Regensburg, Germany, Karl-Anton Hiller, Dr rer nat, University of Regensburg–Dental School, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Regensburg, Germany, Gottfried Schmalz, Prof Dr med dent, University of Regensburg–Dental School, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Regensburg, Germany, Marianne Federlin, Dr med dent, University of Regensburg–Dental School, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Regensburg, Germany. PCC preparations were performed on 84 extracted human molars, with proximal margins placed 1 mm below the cemento-enamel junction. Results of the Mann-Whitney U-Test for Groups 1–3. Extracted human molars (n=84) stored in 0.5% chloramine solution from the time of extraction were hand-scaled, cleaned with slurry of pumice, mounted in acrylic resin (Palavit G, Kulzer, Wehrheim, Germany) and stored in physiological saline solution until used. Material and methods. Efficacy of a resin coating on bond strengths of resin cement to dentin. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney-U-test for pairwise comparison among the groups. The percentage of continuous margin (% of total proximal margin length) was compared between the groups … Bonding characteristics to dentin walls of Class II cavities, in vitro. Univ Lowa 2013. The level of significance was set to α =0.05. With respect to the resin cement Variolink II, luting with the three-step total-etch DBA Syntac Classic revealed significantly less microleakage at each interface than bonding with the two-step total etch DBA Excite (Figure 5). The luting procedures are summarized in Table 1. The dual-cured resin cement Panavia F2.0 showed the best overall values within the resin-coating group. Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry. EVC=Excite/Variolink conventional; EVR=Excite/Variolink resin coated; PAC=ED; Primer/Panavia conventional; PAR=ED Primer/Panavia resin coated; SYC=Syntac/Variolink conventional; SYR=Syntac/Variolink resin coated; REX=self-adhesive universal resin cement. Following the insertion procedures, finishing was performed with finishing diamonds (Komet/Brasseler, Lemgo, Germany) and the restorations were polished with flexible discs (Sof-Lex, 3M Dental Products Division, St Paul MN, USA). Metal ceramic and all-ceramic crowns are used frequently to restore esthetics and function. • The results show that better marginal integrity can be achieved with gold alloy than with titanium partial crowns. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008 February;(9)2:017-024. Cavity preparation factors and microleakage of Class II composite restorations filled at intraoral temperatures. Extracted human molars (n=84) stored in 0.5% chloramine solution from the time of extraction were hand-scaled, cleaned with slurry of pumice, mounted in acrylic resin (Palavit G, Kulzer, Wehrheim, Germany) and stored in physiological saline solution until used. Bond strength of a new universal self-adhesive resin luting cement to dentin and enamel. For the conventional luting technique (Group 1), microleakage was significantly higher at the dentin/composite interface, with medians ranging from 58% (PAC, SYC) to 67% (EVC), compared to the ceramic/composite interface, with medians ranging from 0% (PAC, SYC) to 5% (EVC). For evaluation of the influence of the luting material/method in general, the level of significance was adjusted to α *(k)=1-(1-α)1/k by application of the Error-Rates Method (k=number of paired tests performed). The PCCs were fabricated from Vita Mark II ceramic blocs (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) using the Cerec 3 system and corresponding software in the function mode (Sirona, software: Cerec 3, 1.0 [600]). The “resin-coating technique” is a method where dentin is covered by the application of a bonding-system and a low-viscosity composite immediately after tooth preparation and before impression-taking of indirect restorations. Marginal Integrity of Partial Ceramic Crowns Within Dentin With Different Luting Techniques and Materials ©Operative Dentistry, 2008,33-5, 516-525 SUMMARY This in vitrostudy evaluated the marginal integrity of partial ceramic crowns (PCCs) luted with or without a resin-coating and compared the results with the marginal sealing of a recent- At the dentin/composite interface, PAR (18%; 13–26%) showed significantly the best marginal sealing within group 2 (SYR/PAR p≤ 0.05 and EVR/PAR p≤ 0.001) (Table 3). However, the lowest microleakage values were found for RelyX Unicem (REX: 15%). The current study compared the marginal sealing of partial ceramic crowns luted either with or without the application of a resin-coating and compared the results with the marginal integrity of a recently introduced self-adhesive material. This finding is in accordance with data reported by Jayassoriya and others, who also found the least microleakage at the resin-coat/luting material interface.3. The specimens were covered with nail varnish, except for areas within 1 mm from restoration margins, and placed in 50% silver nitrate aqueous solution (S-6506: Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Steinheim, Germany) for two hours in the dark, followed by six hours exposure to a photo-developing solution/fluorescent light (Rodinal B & W Film Developer, AGFA, Leverkusen, Germany). At the ceramic/composite interface, the marginal sealing of SYR (0%; 0–0.6%) was significantly better than the marginal sealing of EVR (5%; 0–8%) (SYR/EVR p≤ 0.05) and marginally better than the marginal integrity of PAR (1%; 0–5%). b) Resin-coating with Excite/Tetric Flow. Furthermore, the use of the resin-coating technique implies an additional step during the operative procedures. Ceramic/composite-, resin-coating/composite-(where applicable) and dentin/composite-interfaces were evaluated separately. Microleakage, indicated by silver staining along the ceramic/composite, resin-coating/composite (where practicable) and dentin/composite interfaces, was evaluated on the multiple sections with an image analyzing system (Optimas 6.1, Stemmer, München, Germany). The marginal discrepancy was measured by the … However, based upon the results of the current study, the use of RelyX Unicem for luting all-ceramic restorations can be preferably recommended for reducing microleakage and gap formation at the dentin/restoration interface, considering that RelyX Unicem involves fewer steps, therefore it is less time-consuming and technique sensitive. Retention and resistance. The extent of microleakage along the interface was expressed as the percentage of penetration into the depth of the cavity towards the pulpal wall along the cervical cavity margin (100%) (Figure 4). Frederike Schenke, Dr med dent, University of Regensburg–Dental School, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Regensburg, Germany, Karl-Anton Hiller, Dr rer nat, University of Regensburg–Dental School, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Regensburg, Germany, Gottfried Schmalz, Prof Dr med dent, University of Regensburg–Dental School, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Regensburg, Germany, Marianne Federlin, Dr med dent, University of Regensburg–Dental School, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Regensburg, Germany. Therefore, the null hypothesis for the current study is that the conventional luting technique, the resin-coating luting technique and use of the recently introduced self-adhesive universal resin cement will not differ regarding their influence on the marginal integrity of PCCs with margins placed within the dentin. color stability and the marginal integrity of four different interim crown materials. PubMed Google Scholar 47. a) Preparation design of PCC. This bond claims to withstand polymerization shrinkage stresses that develop when the ceramic restoration is finally luted to the resin-coated surface, with the resin-coat acting as an additional stress absorber.2,6 This may explain the significant differences in the occurrence of marginal imperfections represented by silver staining at the dentin margin between Groups 1 (conventional luting) and 2 (resin-coating). Marginal integrity at the different interfaces tooth/PBE, tooth/dentine, inlay/PBE, inlay/dentine was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (×200). Increased wall-to-wall curing contraction in thin bonded resin layers. Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to 'Marginal Integrity of Partial Ceramic Crowns Within Dentin With Different Luting Techniques and Materials' and will not need an account to access the content. DISCREPANCIES OF MARGINAL FIT Complications caused by incomplete seating of crowns are: Creation of premature contacts Alteration of contact areas with adjacent teeth A reduction in crown retention by 19% to 32% Discrepancies of marginal fit of the crown. 3D printing with polymers: Challenges among expanding options and opportunities. The dual-cured resin cement Panavia F2.0 showed the best overall values within the resin-coating group. Marginal integrity: Clinical significance. Values of EVC (5%; 0–10%) were inferior to REX (1%; 0–4%) regarding the ceramic/composite interface. Aim: A porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) veneer crown restoration is considered successful when biological, mechanical, and esthetical concerns are satisfied. Marginal adaptation in dentin of a self-adhesive universal resin cement compared with well-tried systems. Figure 3. Panavia F 2.0 was used with the corresponding self-etching adhesive (ED-Primer). Marginal adaptation was evaluated in two ways: (1) using modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria to evaluate eight preselected sites on each crown margin, and (2) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to measure marginal gaps on all four axial walls with 15 measurements on each wall (60 measurements per crown). This finding is in accordance with data reported by Jayassoriya and others, who also found the least microleakage at the resin-coat/luting material interface.3. MS (Master of Science) thesis, University of Iowa, 2013. Therefore, further improvement of the techniques and materials is necessary to achieve gap-free marginal sealing of a restoration. Olley RC, Andiappan M, Frost PM. After preparation, the teeth were randomly assigned to three groups: 1) Conventional luting technique (n=36), 2) resin-coating luting technique (n=36) or 3) recently introduced self-adhesive universal resin cement (n=12). These results are in line with in vitro investigations by Abo-Hamar and others, who investigated bond strength, and Behr and others, who evaluated the marginal adaptation of RelyX Unicem at the dentin/composite interface of all-ceramic crowns.8,10, In the current study, due to technical reasons, only the influence of the materials at the dentinal margin was studied. Preparation designs. However, discussion of the marginal fit of zirconia crowns when different fabrication methods are compared is lacking in the literature. After insertion of the restorations, excess luting material was removed prior to curing. This site uses cookies. • Crowns may fail because of cement wash-out at the margins. Determination of the extent of silver staining. the crowns were not subjected to artificial aging process, thermocycling and mechanical loading. Furthermore, little or no microleakage could be detected at the interface resin-coat/luting material, indicating that bonding to the resin-coat did not present a limitation as might have been expected (Figure 5; Table 3). Hiller, G. Schmalz, M. Federlin; Marginal Integrity of Partial Ceramic Crowns Within Dentin With Different Luting Techniques and Materials. Determination of the extent of silver staining. It allowed for the simultaneous application of static load and thermal stressing in order to simulate clinical conditions within the limitations of the protocol used.12 In an in vitro study on marginal adaptation of adhesive ceramic inlays, Krejci and others showed that the initial marginal integrity to enamel and dentin deteriorated after thermocycling and mechanical loading, reporting that 120,000 chewing (loading) cycles approximated six months of clinical use.13 The settings in the current study approximated 2–2.5 years of clinical use. 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