Captain Barry Petersen's work with raising an anti-communist Montagnard force in the central highlands between 1963 and 1965 highlighted another problem—South Vietnamese officials sometimes found sustained success by a foreigner difficult to accept.  In April 1966 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) was established in Phước Tuy Province, based at Nui Dat. , Although extensive, these programs were often undertaken without reference to the local population and it was not until 1969 that villagers were involved in determining what projects would be undertaken and in their construction. A review of Vietnam’s response to COVID-19 and its implications. , The Vietnam Forces National Memorial, Canberra, Although initially there was considerable support for Australia's involvement in Vietnam, as opposition to the war increased service in Vietnam came to be seen by sections of the Australian community in less than sympathetic terms and opposition to it generated negative views of veterans in some quarters. While all Australians were evacuated, 130 Vietnamese who had worked at the embassy and had been promised evacuation were left behind. Palazzo believes that like the Americans, Australian strategy was focused on seeking to engage the Communist forces in battle and ultimately failed as the Communists were generally able to evade Australian forces when conditions were not favourable.  The war continued without respite however, and between May and June 1968 1 ATF was again deployed away from Phuoc Tuy in response to intelligence reports of another impending offensive. , By 1962 the situation in South Vietnam had become bad enough that Diem submitted a request for assistance to the United States and its allies in order to counter the growing insurgency and the threat that it posed to South Vietnam's security. , In August 1964 the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) sent a flight of Caribou transports to the port town of Vũng Tàu. In response, 1 ATF was deployed along likely infiltration routes to defend the vital Biên Hòa–Long Binh complex near Saigon, as part of Operation Coburg between January and March. "The American concept [of how the war should be fought] remained unchallenged and it prevailed almost by default. , Initially there was considerable support for Australia's involvement in Vietnam, and all Australian battalions returning from Vietnam participated in well attended welcome home parades through either Sydney, Adelaide, Brisbane or Townsville, even during the early 1970s. "The Aussies used squads to make contact... and brought in reinforcements to do the killing; they planned in the belief that a platoon on the battlefield could do anything." Moreover, the Australians did not devote sufficient resources to disrupting the logistical infrastructure which supported the Communist forces in Phuoc Tuy Province and popular support for the Communists remained strong. More typical of the Australian war was company-level patrolling and cordon and search operations which were designed to put pressure on enemy units and disrupt their access to the local population. The demonstration in Melbourne, led by future deputy prime minister Jim Cairns, was supported by an estimated 100,000 people.  In November 1970, the unit's strength peaked at 227 advisors. , The Australian withdrawal effectively commenced in November 1970. In the final years of the Australian presence it became more involved in assistance to villages and to the provincial administration. Some advisors worked with regular ARVN units and formations, while others worked with the Montagnard hill tribes in conjunction with US Special Forces. Regardless, the Viet Cong maintained the ability to conduct local operations. , In Australia, resistance to the war was at first very limited.  The issue of whether a formal request was made by the South Vietnamese government at this time has been disputed, however.  Thereafter, battalions serving with 1 ATF all contained National Servicemen.  Six Australians listed as missing in action, although these men are included in the list of Australians killed in action and the last of their remains were finally located and returned to Australia in 2009. , Meanwhile, although the bulk of Australian military resources in Vietnam were devoted to operations against the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces, a civic action program was also undertaken to assist the local population and government authorities in Phước Tuy. Approximately 60,000 Australians served in the war; 521 were killed and more than 3,000 were wounded. Here, retired Colonel William C Haponski, co-author of ‘Autopsy of an Unwinnable War: Vietnam’, explains that the British were in fact one of five main players in early post-World War 2 Vietnam. Activities included construction and public works, medical and dental treatment, education, agriculture development and youth and sports programs. 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